The most basic error that is conveyed by the naturalist framework into the premises of sociology—the folk epistemology—that was shared by Durkheim, Mill, and Comte, is the assumption that all phenomena are subject to laws; that the relevant laws are abstract and obscure; and that there is an orderly relationship between gross phenomena and a rising level of natural laws that embrace those observable phenomena. The task of scientific study is to discover this rising pyramid of regularities and laws (motions of planets ENCOMPASSED BY elliptical orbits ENCOMPASSED BY gravitational attraction ENCOMPASSING other phenomena such as tides). This model is then used to frame the sociologist’s expectations of the orderliness of sociological observations and regularities. The social world is assumed to be a system of phenomena governed by hidden regularities and causal laws; the task of social science research is to discover these governing regularities and laws. . However, this conception of the world does not fit the domain of the social at all.
We can provide an alternative social ontology—a better grounding for sociological research. The social sciences could have begun with a greater degree of agnosticism about the orderliness of social phenomena. We could have started with the observations that—
- Social phenomena are created by human beings (deliberately, intentionally, or unknowingly)
- Human beings behave as a result of their socially constructed beliefs, values, goals, attitudes, modes of reasoning, emotions, …
- There is a wide range of variation that is visible among social arrangements and institutions, across cultures, across space, and across time (long duration and short duration)
- Social institutions, organizations, and structures have a degree of observable stability across cohorts and generations of the human beings who make them up
- There are social causes, and they are ordinary, observable, and mundane. They are variants of the agent-structure nexus.
These initial ontological observations would have led us to some framing expectations about the social and about the likely results of social science inquiry:
- contingency of social outcomes
- Variation of social trajectory
- Plasticity of social institutions
- Heterogeneity among instances of a “type” of social thing
- No “laws of motion” for development or modernization
And we might have set several research objectives for the social sciences:
- To study in some detail how various institutions work in different social settings (empirical, fact-driven observation and analysis)
- To study human behavior, motivation, and action – again, with sensibility to variation, without the assumption that there is one ultimate human nature or governing mode of behavior.
- To be as aware of variation and plasticity as we are attentive to the discovery of social regularities
- To discover and theorize some of the causal mechanisms that can be observed within social processes
- To identify weak regularities of behavior and institution through observation
- To theorize these regularities in terms of agent-structure dynamics; aggregation of features of decision-making; unintended consequences. For example, free rider phenomena (economists) and self-regulating commons (common-property resource institutions)
We then might have arrived at a different conception of what a “finished” social science might involve: not a deductive theory with a few high-level generalizations and laws, but rather an “agent-based simulation” that embodies as many of the characteristics and varieties of behavior as possible into the simulation, and then projects different possible scenarios. The ideal might have been “sim-society” rather than deductive-nomological theory.