There is a great deal of important international work underway today within the philosophy of social science on the general topic of social ontology. How do social structures relate to the actions of socially situated actors? How does causation work in the social realm? Can we say anything rigorous about the nature of “levels” of the social world — micro, meso, and macro? And is there such a thing as an “emergent” social property or entity?
Sociologists and philosophers in Germany, Scandinavia, the UK, Belgium, France, Italy, and North America have undertaken serious work on these topics, and they constitute a dynamic network of thinking and debating. Some of the longstanding dualities in philosophy and sociology are questioned: individualism versus holism, micro versus macro, analytic versus continental, structure versus agent. Sociologists whose dispositions incline towards the importance of social structures are convening with rational choice theorists and game theorists; analytic sociologists are debating ontology with emergentists; and the field is displaying an energetic and productive degree of ferment.
The people whose work I am thinking of here are a motley group: Peter Hedstrom, Hans Joas, Petri Ylikoski, Bert Leuridan, Margaret Archer, Gianluca Manzo, Philippo Barbera, Pierre Demeulenaere, Julian Reiss, Rainer Greshoff, Dave Elder-Vass, Jeroen Van Bouwel, Mohamed Cherkaoui, … And it is roughly as challenging to keep clearly in mind the manifold debates that are unfolding as it is to watch the Indianapolis 500 as the cars rocket by at 200 miles an hour. Some of these contributors are long-established scholars with huge reputations; others are young scholars with wickedly sharp minds and awesome work habits. And frankly, I’m at least as impressed with the younger generation as the elder.
One recent book that stands out as a key contribution that permits a degree of geolocation within these tangled debates is Poe Wan’s Reframing the Social: Emergentist Systemism and Social Theory. Wan seems to have read every word of the debates, and he is ready to help interested parties take stock of the various theoretical perspectives.
The key axis in Wan’s work — here and elsewhere — is that defined by Niklas Luhmann and Mario Bunge on the topic of emergent social systems. Wan is persuaded that social properties are “emergent” in some important sense, and he also seems to believe that the ideas of system and complexity are important components of our vocabulary for social ontology. But how should we understand these ideas? Luhmann’s theory tends towards the position of holism, whereas Bunge’s position allows that there is an intelligible connection between upper-level properties and micro-level facts and he focuses his theory of explanation on finding underlying mechanisms of various social outcomes. Wan refers to Bunge’s approach as “rational emergentism” (68). Wan is respectful towards each of these theories, but he clearly favors that put forward by Bunge. Like Bunge, Wan too favors the focus on mechanisms; he admires Bunge’s insistence on paying attention to the details of existing research in the natural and social sciences; and most importantly, he endorses Bunge’s view that our theories of “emergent” social phenomena must be grounded in a theory of the actor.
Here is how Wan characterizes Bunge’s systems theory and its relationship to a theory of the actor:
Bunge’s emergentist systemism is best construed as a version of action-systems theory …, because Bunge states explicitly that “the features of a social system depend upon the nature, strength, and variability of social relations, which in turn are reducible to social actions.” (6)
In Chapter 5 I argue for a systems approach that is ontologically sound (that is to say, transcending both holism [macro-reductionism] and individualism [micro-reductionism]), with due consideration given to the role of human factors and their actions in designing, maintaining, improving, repairing or dismantling social systems. (10)
Wan also believes that Bunge’s CESM model is a helpful one for thinking about social ontology and explanation. This model incorporates composition, environment, structure, and mechanisms. For a given social entity we want to know what it is composed of; what are the features of the environment within which it functions; how is it arranged internally; and how does it work (55).
Another important part of Wan’s approach is his affinity with the social theories of the critical realists — Bhaskar, Asher, Elder-Vass. Fundamentally this comes down to the view that social structures have real causal powers, along the lines of Rom Harre’s meaning of this term (110, 119, 121).
Reframing the Social is an important contribution to current debates about the nature of the social. And I agree with him that the question of social ontology is a fundamental one; perhaps more so than the issues of the epistemology of the social sciences that have generally played first violin. Further, Wan does a good job of showing how these debates are relevant to the emerging framework of analytical sociology — sometimes in ways that cast doubt on some of the guiding presuppositions of that field. In particular, the aggregative strategy of explanation that is favored by AS is questionable once we give credence to the idea that social structures possess autonomous causal powers. Along with Dave Elder-Vass’s The Causal Power of Social Structures: Emergence, Structure and Agency, this book stands as an important alternative to Hedstrom’s Dissecting the Social: On the Principles of Analytical Sociology.
Here is a nice passage from Durkheim’s Rules of Sociological Method that Wan quotes on the subject of emergence: